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Bilateral posterior subcapsular cataracts have been reported in association with nasal or oral inhalation of beclomethasone dipropionate purchase zoloft online now anxiety webmd, although many of these patients had used higher-than-recommended doses or had received concomitant oral steroid therapy ( 127) generic zoloft 25 mg line anxiety and blood pressure. In a case-control study, nasal steroids were not associated with an increased risk for ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma, whereas prolonged administration of high doses of inhaled steroids increased the risk for these adverse effects (128). Initially, some patients may require topical decongestants before administering intranasal steroids. In some patients, the congestion is so severe that a 3- to 5-day course of oral corticosteroids is required to allow delivery of the intranasal steroids. In contrast to decongestant nasal sprays, patients should be informed that intranasal steroids should be used prophylactically and that maximum benefit is not immediate and may take weeks. Although a delayed onset of action with the intranasal steroids may occur in some patients, well-controlled studies ( 129,130,131 and 132) have shown that many patients have a clinically evident onset of effect during the first day of administration. Some studies suggest that intranasal steroids can be used on an as-needed basis by many patients, but for some patients, optimal effectiveness can be achieved only with regular use ( 133,134). Intranasal Corticosteroid Injection Intranasal corticosteroid injections have been used for clinical practice in the management of patients with common allergic and nonallergic nasal conditions such as nasal polyposis. With the advent of newer and safer intranasal steroids, the use of this technique has decreased in recent years. Turbinate injections have two major adverse effects that are not seen with intranasal corticosteroid sprays: (a) adrenal suppression secondary to absorption of the steroid, and (b) absorption of steroid emboli, which may lead to transient or permanent loss of vision ( 135). Systemic Corticosteroids Systemic corticosteroids are regarded by many allergists as inappropriate therapy for patients with mild to moderate allergic rhinitis. Although rhinitis is not a threat to life, it can seriously impair the quality of it, and some patients respond only to corticosteroids. Also, when the topical steroid cannot be adequately distributed in the nose because of marked obstruction, it will not be effective. In such cases, the blocked nose can be opened by giving a systemic corticosteroid for 3 to 7 days, and the improvement can then be maintained by the topical corticosteroid spray. It is essential always to relate the risk for side effects to the dosage given, and especially to the length of the treatment period. When short-term systemic steroid treatment is given for 1 to 2 weeks, it can be a valuable and safe supplement to topical treatments in the management of severe allergic rhinitis or nasal polyposis. As in the use of topical corticosteroids, however, systemic steroids should be reserved for severe cases that cannot be controlled by routine measures and should be used for a limited period and never on a chronic basis. Anticholinergics Ipratropium is an anticholinergic drug that was released in recent years for treatment of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive lung disease. It has a quaternary ammonia structure, which gives this medication high topical activity, but because of its structure, there is no appreciable absorption of this medication across mucosal barriers. Therefore, the unpleasant anticholinergic side effects commonly associated with atropine are not experienced with this medication. Because cholinergic mechanisms in the nose may lead to hypersecretion and blood vessel dilation, interest in this medication has increased. Ipratropium decreases the watery rhinorrhea in patients with perennial rhinitis ( 136) and reduces nasal drainage in patients with the common cold or vasomotor rhinitis ( 137). Unfortunately, it has no appreciable effect on obstruction or sneezing in patients with rhinitis. Intranasal Cromolyn Cromolyn sodium is a derivative of the natural product khellin. The proposed mechanism of action of cromolyn in allergic rhinitis is to stabilize mast cell membranes, apparently by inhibiting calcium transmembrane flux and thereby preventing antigen-induced degranulation. It has been reported to be effective in the management of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis ( 138,139). Cromolyn can be effective in reducing sneezing, rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritus ( 140,141) but is minimally useful in nonallergic types of rhinitis and nasal polyps ( 142) and has little effect on mucociliary transport. Cromolyn often prevents the symptoms of both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, and diligent prophylaxis can significantly reduce both immediate and late symptoms after allergen exposures ( 143). Patients also may experience mucosal irritation due to the preservatives benzalkonium chloride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. For management of seasonal rhinitis, treatment should begin 2 to 4 weeks before contact with the offending allergens and should be continued throughout the period of exposure. Because cromolyn has a delayed onset of effect, concurrent antihistamine therapy is usually necessary to control symptoms. It is essential for the patient to understand the rate and extent of response to be expected from intranasal cromolyn and that, because the product is prophylactic, it must be used on a regular basis for maximum benefit. Several studies have compared the therapeutic efficacy of cromolyn nasal solution with that of the intranasal corticosteroids in allergic rhinitis. In both perennial (144,145) and seasonal allergic rhinitis ( 146,147), intranasal steroids have been reported to be more effective than cromolyn. Nedocromil sodium is a pyranoquinolone dicarboxylic acid derivative that is reported to be effective against both mucosal and connective tissue type mast cells. In contrast, cromolyn sodium appears to be effective only against connective tissue type mast cells. Nedocromil has been reported to be effective in seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis ( 148). Like cromolyn, nedocromil is recommended primarily for prophylactic use, and therapy should be instituted 2 to 4 weeks before the allergy season. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a treatment that attempts to increase the threshold level for symptom appearance after exposure to the aeroallergen. This altered degree of sensitivity may be the result of either the induction of a new antibody (the so-called blocking antibody), a decrease in allergic antibody, a change in the cellular histamine release phenomenon, or an interplay of all three possibilities. The severity of allergic rhinitis and its complications is a spectrum varying from minimal to marked symptoms and from short to prolonged durations. Indications for immunotherapy, a fairly long-term treatment modality, are relative rather than absolute. For example, a patient who has mild grass pollinosis for only a few weeks in June may be managed well by symptomatic therapy alone. On the other hand, those with perennial allergic rhinitis or allergic rhinitis in multiple pollen seasons who require almost daily symptomatic treatment for long periods may be considered candidates for specific therapy. The advantages of long-term relief of such therapy, which is relatively expensive, should be considered in relationship to the cost of daily medication. In addition, specific therapy may help to deter the development of some of the complications of chronic rhinitis. Animal dander injection therapy should be restricted to veterinarians and laboratory personnel whose occupation makes avoidance practically and financially impossible. Patients are generally not cured of their disease but rather have fewer symptoms that are more easily controlled by symptomatic medication. A frequent cause of treatment failure is that a patient expects too much, too soon, and thus prematurely discontinues the injection program because of dissatisfaction.

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Boehringer Ingelheim also put clear access plans in place during prod- can improve the transparency of its access strat- uct development to ensure successful innova- egies and initiatives 25mg zoloft with mastercard psychotic depression symptoms uk. It can engage more with tions are accessible to relevant countries upon stakeholders worldwide purchase 50 mg zoloft overnight delivery mood disorder log, in order to learn from market approval. It can disclose the outcomes of these Address access needs in markets not prior- engagements. Broaden capacity building eforts in response It can consider approaches for ensuring access in to local needs. Boehringer Animal Health, Biopharmaceuticals and Industrial Ingelheim has sales in 23 countries within the 4,000 Customers. The company s key 0 areas of focus are: cardiovascular disease, met- 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 abolic diseases, immunology. The company is developing needs of people living in low- or middle-income countries. Ingelheim falls eight places due to an overall has more than doubled in size since 2014, due It has started several innovative access pilots drop in transparency and a below-average com- to projects that meet new inclusion criteria. Boehringer Ingelheim does not New R&D strategy supported by fve-year have a detailed marketing code of conduct, but investment. It has also developed is a clear leader when it comes to directing R&D an Africa Strategy. Boehringer Ingelheim positions of trade associations of which it is a has a performance management system to track member. It does not disclose information about Takes measures to ensure ethical clinical trial progress toward access objectives. Boehringer Ingelheim has policies in the company is not transparent with regards place and takes measures to ensure in-house to these measurements, nor does it provide Does not disclose breaches of laws or codes. Nevertheless, it does Boehringer Ingelheim has a process for enforc- table pricing. Boehringer Ingelheim falls four not publish its stakeholder engagement pro- ing codes of conduct that applies to all employ- places from 14th: its equitable pricing behav- cesses, activities and related outcomes. PreCare is a in disciplinary action, including termination of not provide any price or volume-of-sales infor- holistic stroke care package for reaching low-in- employment or discontinuation of services. Boehringer coupon-based loyalty program, also for stroke Audit system extends to third parties. The com- Ingelheim has equitable pricing strategies for the and which targets both patients and healthcare pany has an auditing system that is co-managed same products as in 2014: these are focused on professionals. These oversee regular audits within the However, only a few (6%) of the company s rele- for adhering to protocols and patient tracking. The system covers vant products have pricing strategies that target all countries in which the company has opera- priority countries (disease-specifc sub-sets Best Practice: Making More Health. Together, these target work together to develop, support and scale up just a few (6%) priority countries. Boehringer innovative business models that address global Ingelheim is the only company without a spe- health challenges, focusing on prevention, diag- cifc commitment to applying equitable pricing in nosis and treatment. Boehringer Ingelheim s ad hoc donations commit to the core Ingelheim fell 13 places. It demonstrated less principles of international guidelines for dona- Consistent recall guidelines. Ingelheim is one of the few companies undertak- ing regular audits and requiring regular reporting Limited brochure & packaging adaptation for Above average performance in R&D capac- from recipients on donations. Boehringer Ingelheim s strongest dence of adapting brochures and packaging capacity building area is R&D: it has a number of Involved in humanitarian assistance. Boehringer materials to address language needs, but does partnerships with local research organisations Ingelheim typically donates ad hoc donations to not consider literacy, demographic, environmen- to support R&D expertise in countries. All of its long-term partners AmeriCares, Direct Relief tal or cultural needs in countries in scope. Boehringer Ingelheim updates safety labels in countries in scope but did not volun- Consistent performer. Boehringer Ingelheim is tarily share other safety information with rele- a consistent performer in Patents & Licensing, vant authorities. In 2016, it improves its behav- ity: with authorities in the Middle East (including iour by expanding the geographic scope of its Egypt and Iraq). This is the broadest non-en- but did not commit to timely reporting of sus- forcement agreement noted by the Index, and pected cases. Local capacity-building needs for health-re- lated skills and infrastructure outside the value No transparency on patent status. Boehringer Ingelheim does not publish the status of its Ingelheim does not demonstrate a strategic, patents. The company undertakes capacity building activities Absence of competition-related breaches. The governance of its approach to product than in 2014, and now has three donation pro- access has signifcantly improved: its new Going Beyond grammes. However, it has the smallest pipeline relevant to the Medicines Alone strategy combines its several initiatives Index. It has improved substantially in Market Infuence the period of analysis, it was judged to have breached com- & Compliance, with a more transparent approach to ethi- petition law in Mexico. Eli Lilly shows innovation in capacity cal marketing and lobbying, and a broad, risk-based approach building but does not clearly demonstrate that all its capacity to auditing. It uses equitable pricing strategies for one more building activities consistently target local needs. Eli Lilly R&D activities fll key product gaps by drawing Set registration targets for key diseases. This helps to ensure early these by drawing upon its diverse expertise Lilly China Research and Development Centre. As new products move into late stages of devel- company can also register existing products in Plus, given that non-communicable diseases opment, Eli Lilly can make plans for products to more countries with high burdens of disease. Given the large numbers of people in Strengthen and expand capacity building low- and middle-income countries living with Mitigate mark-ups in low- and middle-income eforts. Eli Lilly can draw on its experience in livestock and other animals, Eli Lilly can leverage countries. For example, it can expand Consider local needs and access during prod- its eforts to build manufacturing capacity, work- uct development. Eli Lilly can ensure more of its ing with local partners to identify shared goals. This product candidate has moved from dis- icines, its portfolio is also one of the small- covery stage, through preclinical development, 14 est of the companies in scope. Eli Lilly is not target- 10 lio includes medicines targeting ischaemic heart ing high-priority product gaps with low commer- disease, diabetes and mental health conditions. Eli Lilly s pipeline of Improvements in all areas lifts company into emerging Chinese middle class. Eli Lilly moves age in size; it was not able to demonstrate how up three places into the top ten, following certain investigational products will be made improvements across all areas of measurement.

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It has been shown that estimates of R0 cheap zoloft 100mg fast delivery depression definition of, under the false assumption that a heterogeneously mixing population is homoge- neously mixing buy zoloft 100 mg online anxiety quitting smoking, are not greater than the actual R0 for the heterogeneous population [1, 103]. There is clear evidence that infectious diseases spread geographically and maps with isodate spread contours have been produced [12, 55, 158, 166]. Some estimated speeds of propagation are 30 60 kilometers per year for fox rabies in Europe starting in 1939 [166], 18 24 miles per year for raccoon rabies in the Eastern United States start- ing in 1977 [49], about 140 miles per year for the plague in Europe in 1347 1350 [166], and worldwide in one year for inuenza in the 20th century [176]. Diusion epidemiology mod- els are formulated from nonspatial models by adding diusion terms corresponding to the random movements each day of susceptibles and infectives. Dispersal-kernel models are formulated by using integral equations with kernels describing daily con- tacts of infectives with their neighbors. For spatial models in nite domains, stationary states and their stability have been investigated [38]. Mathematical epidemiology has now evolved into a separate area of population dynamics that is parallel to mathematical ecology. Epidemiology models are now used to combine complex data from various sources in order to study equally complex outcomes. In this paper we have focused on the role of the basic reproduction number R0, which is dened as the average number of people infected when a typical infective enters an entirely susceptible population. We have illustrated the signicance of R0 by obtaining explicit expressions for R0 and proving threshold results which imply that a disease can invade a completely susceptible population if and only if R0 > 1. For the basic endemic models without age structure, the expressions for the basic reproduction number R0 are intuitively obvious as the product of the contact rate, the average infectious period, and the fraction surviving the latent period (provided there is an exposed class in the model). But for more complicated models, expressions for R0 must be derived from threshold conditions for the stability of the disease-free equilibrium or the existence of an endemic equilibrium in the feasible region. Many epidemiology models now used to study infectious diseases involve age structures, because fertilities, death rates, and contact rates all depend on the ages of the individuals. Thus the basic reproduction number R0 must be found for these epidemiologic-demographic models. These expressions for R0 are found by examining when there is a positive (endemic) equilibrium in the feasible region, and then it is veried that the disease persists if and only if R0 > 1. To illustrate the application of the theoretical formulas for R0 in models with age groups, two applications have been included in this paper. Based on demographic and epidemiologic estimates for measles in Niger, Africa, the value of the basic repro- duction number found from (6. The interesting aspect of this measles application is that R0 is found for a very rapidly growing population. In contrast, the current fertility and death data in the United States suggests that the population is approaching a stable age distribution with constant total size. Using previously developed models for pertussis (whooping cough) in which the immunity is temporary [105, 106], the basic reproduction numbers are estimated in section 8 to be R0 =5. The interesting aspect of the pertussis calculations is that new types of infectives with lower infectiv- ity occur after the invasion, because infected people who previously had pertussis have lower infectivity when reinfected. Although the contact number is equal to R0 when pertussis rst invades the population, the new broader collection of typical infectives implies that Using numerical approximations during the computer simulations, the contact numbers at the endemic equilibrium are estimated in section 8 to be =3 for the rst age group pertussis model and =1. This phenomenon that For this model the contact number satises = R0[I + mIm + wIw]/[I + Im + Iw] For nearly all models R0 = >Rafter the invasion, but for the pertussis models, R0 >>Rafter the invasion. Thus the pertussis models have led to an entirely new way of thinking about the dierences between the contact number and the basic reproduction number R0. May, The population dynamics of microparasites and their in- vertebrate hosts, Philos. Andreasen, The eect of age-dependent host mortality on the dynamics of an endemic disease, Math. Levin, The dynamics of cocirculating inuenza strains conferring partial cross-immunity, J. Milner, Existence and uniqueness of endemic states for age-structured S-I-R epidemic model, Math. Cliff, Incorporating spatial components into models of epidemic spread, in Epidemic Models: Their Structure and Relation to Data, D. Metz, On the denition and the compu- tation of the basic reproduction ratio R0 in models for infectious diseases in heterogeneous populations, J. Dietz, The incidence of infectious diseases under the inuence of seasonal uctuations,in Mathematical Models in Medicine, J. Dietz, The evaluation of rubella vaccination strategies, in The Mathematical Theory of the Dynamics of Populations, Vol. Schenzle, Mathematical models for infectious disease statistics, in A Cele- bration of Statistics, A. Schenzle, Proportionate mixing models for age-dependent infection trans- mission, J. El-Doma, Analysis of nonlinear integro-dierential equations arising in age-dependent epidemic models, Nonlinear Anal. Velasco-Hernandez, Competitive exclusion in a vector-host model for the dengue fever, J. Anderson, Dynamical complexity in age-structured models of the transmission of measles virus: Epidemiological implications of high levels of vaccine uptake, Math. Greenhalgh, Analytical threshold and stability results on age-structured epidemic models with vaccination, Theoret. Das, Some threshold and stability results for epidemic models with a density dependent death rate, Theoret. Anderson, Pertussis in England and Wales: An investigation of transmission dynamics and control by mass vaccination, Proc. Gripenberg, On a nonlinear integral equation modelling an epidemic in an age-structured population, J. Fehrs, Theoretical epi- demiologic and morbidity eects of routine varicella immunization of preschool children in the United States, Am. Struchiner, Epidemiological eects of vaccines with complex direct eects in an age-structured population, Math. Hethcote, A thousand and one epidemic models, in Frontiers in Theoretical Biology, S. Hethcote, Modeling heterogeneous mixing in infectious disease dynamics, in Models for Infectious Human Diseases, V. Hethcote, Simulations of pertussis epidemiology in the United States: Eects of adult booster vaccinations, Math. Van Ark, Epidemiological models with heterogeneous popula- tions: Proportionate mixing, parameter estimation and immunization programs, Math. Li, An intuitive formulation for the reproductive number for the spread of diseases in heterogeneous populations, Math.

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References to letters differ from manuscripts in that they have a formal structure applied to clearly identify the author (initiator) and the recipient (receiver) of the communication buy zoloft uk depression glass green. Because of the lack of other information to include in a citation to a letter buy 25mg zoloft with mastercard vitale depression definition, providing the full names for both author and recipient is recommended as well as any clarifying notes on its content. Most examples for citations to letters provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Other types of personal communication, such as conversations, are not included in the examples for this chapter because they are so rarely seen in a reference list. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Letters and Other Personal Communication. Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Connective Phrase (R) | Recipient (R) | Recipient Affiliation (O) | Date (R) | Pagination (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Author Enter surname (family or last name) first for the person initiating the communication Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. Letters and Other Personal Communication 607 Box 2 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit becomes Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. Letters and Other Personal Communication 609 Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. If the actual name is located elsewhere, add it surname first in square brackets after the title. Letter with place inferred Connective Phrase for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Connective Phrase Use the phrase "Letter to", "Conversation with", or "Telephone conversation with" as appropriate End the phrase with a colon and a space Recipient for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Recipient Enter the given (first) name and any middle name or initials of the person receiving the communication; follow initials with periods Give the surname (family or last name) Capitalize surnames and enter spaces in surnames as they appear in the document cited. James Box 17 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit Jiddeke M. Erdman For non-English names that have been romanized (written in the roman alphabet), capitalize only the first letter if an initial is represented by more than one letter Iu. Lang Omit rank and honors such as Colonel or Sir that precede a name, unless no given name is provided Sir Frances Hildebrand becomes Frances Hildebrand Dr. If the actual name is located elsewhere, add it in square brackets following the title. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Division, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Letter to: Ettore Marubini (Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy). Letter to: Mihai Barbulescu (Clinica Chirurgicala, Spitalul Clinic Coltea, Bucarest, Romania). Letter with place inferred Date for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Date Begin with the year Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers. Letter with date estimated Letters and Other Personal Communication 625 Pagination for Personal Communication (optional) General Rules for Pagination If the pages of a letter are numbered, provide the total number of pages Follow the page total with a space and the letter p If the pages of a letter are not numbered, provide the total number of sheets of paper on which the letter appears Follow the page total with the word leaf or leaves End pagination information in both cases with a period Specific Rules for Pagination Roman numerals used as page numbers Box 35 Roman numerals used as page numbers If the pages of a letter have roman numerals instead of the usual arabic numbers: Convert the roman numeral on the last page of the text to an arabic number Follow the number by "p. Letter with numbered pages Language for Personal Communication (required) General Rules for Language Give the language of communication if not English Capitalize the language name Follow the language name with a period Examples for Language 12. Letter in a language other than English Notes for Personal Communication (optional) General Rules for Notes Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself Complete sentences are not required Be brief 626 Citing Medicine Specific Rules for Notes Name and location of a public archive Restrictions on use Other types of material to include in notes Box 36 Name and location of a public archive Information on a library or other public archive where the letter may be seen is helpful to the reader. Box 37 Restrictions on use A library or other archive may place a variety of types of restrictions on the use of letters. For example, letters may only be available with an appointment or to scholars at the doctorate level. Box 38 Other types of material to include in notes Notes is a collective term for any type of useful information given after the citation itself. Letter asking if Halsted could perform a hernia operation on the carpenter of the Army Medical Museum. Letter with note Examples of Citations to Letters and Other Personal Communication 1. Letter in a language other than English de Lucretiis, Gaetano (San Severo, Italy). Wheaton thanks Younglove for a cowpox sample and describes his experiments with smallpox. Individual Manuscripts Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Manuscripts The general format for a reference to an individual manuscript, including punctuation: Examples of Citations to Individual Manuscripts A manuscript refers to any type of work, either handwritten or typewritten, that is not published. Examples of manuscripts include author drafts of journal articles and books as well as finished works. There is no place of publication, publisher, or date of publication in an unpublished manuscript. Other differences from the standard book are that the full names of authors are used, and an unpaginated manuscript is described in terms of leaves, not pages. Include in a citation, when possible, the name of a library or other public archive where the item may be found, as well as any order or catalog number. If a manuscript is not available in a public archive, most authorities recommend placing references to it within the running text, not as a formal end reference. The nature and source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information in parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate that the citation is not represented in the reference list. Note that the majority of examples for citations provided in this chapter are taken from the Modern Manuscripts Collection of the National Library of Medicine. Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Manuscripts Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Author (R) | Author Affiliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Secondary Author (O) | Date (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Availability (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author for Individual Manuscripts (required) General Rules for Author Enter surname (family or last name) first for the author Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited. Box 2 Other surname rules Keep prefixes in surnames Lama Al Bassit becomes Al Bassit, Lama Jiddeke M. Follow the same rules as used for author names, but end the list of names with a comma and the specific role, that is, translator. Manuscript author name or secondary author name with designations of rank within a family 4. Moskva becomes Moscow Wien becomes Vienna Italia becomes Italy 640 Citing Medicine Espana becomes Spain Examples for Author Affiliation 10. In this circumstance: Construct a title from the first few words of the text Use enough words to make the constructed title meaningful Place the constructed title in square brackets Examples: Reeves, James Edmund. Manuscript with title in a language other than English with optional translation Type of Medium for Individual Manuscripts (required) General Rules for Type of Medium Indicate the type of medium (microfilm, microfiche, etc. Manuscript in a microform Secondary Author for Individual Manuscripts (optional) General Rules for Secondary Author A secondary author modifies the work of the author. Box 21 Non-English names for secondary authors Translate the word found for editor, translator, illustrator, or other secondary author into English if possible. Manuscript with translators and other secondary authors Date for Individual Manuscripts (required) General Rules for Date Begin with the year Convert roman numerals to arabic numbers.

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