Mars Hill College.
Heat generic 500mcg advair diskus free shipping asthma zolar, massage and physical therapy These may be passive-role therapies How often have you had I have had three separate therapists He is seeking complete relief physical therapy treatment? Every This is a very good sign time I exercised I felt better Are you exercising on your No order discount advair diskus online asthma treatment names, I am afraid I will hurt myself. He uses family and work as an excuse to avoid his responsibility for caring for himself What is your work? I spend 40–50 hours per This is a very inactive job week driving in my car Is your sleep interrupted? Yes, I have trouble falling asleep This is probably anxiety and is very common in chronic pain patients Your F-6 shows that your No, only because of the pain I have. Be suspicious of depression physical functioning is severely Without pain my life would be perfect. I limited with severe pain and have wonderful children, my wife loves me, low vitality. What are you most afraid that That it will get worse and worse and I will He is catastrophizing and exaggerating the pain will do to you? I would not be what could happen able to provide for my family 484 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Table 10. Healing of tissues is years ago, when I had an accident at ﬁnished work Where is your pain? In my back and down both legs This pattern of pain is plausible and warrants further questioning On a scale of 0–10, how would you 10 out of 10 A maximal pain rating is suspicious for rate your pain? With deconditioning and secondary joint pathologies, his pain response to all activities seems likely What makes your pain better? Medication and lying down make it He has a passive lifestyle, is displaying better avoidance behavior and is dependent on medication How many hours do you lie down? His waking up at night may be due to depression What can you now not do because of I used to walk 20 minutes every day. I can stand for 6 and could be based on his low minutes expectation for function What activities do you do outside of I used to go bowling and socialize This activity tolerance could be work? Now my ex-wife or mother comes The patient’s family may contribute to his over to do everything illness behavior Do you work? I hate my Apparent job dissatisfaction is a common boss problem contributing to disability How long were you working at this job? This predicts a poor outcome in rehabilitation Are you thinking of going back to your No, I am applying for disability This answer demonstrates passive job? Make use of psychiatric something could be done for my pain expertise for assistance. If never diagnosed in the patient, ﬁnd out about the family What would you do a year from now if All my problems would be solved. Cleland et al (2006) stretching demonstrated signiﬁcantly greater conducted a study to determine whether low improvements in disability, pain, and back pain and disability improved, together centralization of symptoms than patients who with centralization of symptoms, when slump did not (see Fig. All patients manipulation than to dummy (simulated) were treated in physical therapy twice weekly manipulation (Santilli et al 2006). At • Manipulation for neck pain: In a randomized discharge, patients who received slump controlled trial 70 patients with mechanical 486 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Figure 10. Patient was instructed to sit erect with knees in 90° thoracic manipulation, compared to placebo of ﬂexion. The presence or absence of symptoms manipulation, in patients with neck pain was recorded. Patient was instructed to ‘slump’ shoulders and high velocity thoracic spine manipulation (Fig. The presence or absence of symptoms was patients with mechanical neck pain and recorded. While maintaining the position described in step 2, • Exercise, advice for chronic whiplash symptoms: the patient was instructed to tuck their chin to the Chronic whiplash pain, and associated chest and the clinician applied overpressure into disorders, that persist beyond 3 months cervical ﬂexion. The presence or absence of following the trauma are not commonly symptoms was recorded. A randomized, assessor-blinded, ﬂexion the patient was instructed to extend the controlled trial was conducted at two centers knee. Position 4 was maintained while the patient was addition, the experimental group participated instructed to actively dorsiﬂex the ankle. Overpressure of the cervical spine was released progressive, submaximal program designed to and the patient was instructed to return the neck to improve participants’ ability to complete a neutral position. The presence or absence of functional activities speciﬁed by the participant symptoms was recorded. As well as a home exercise program, each participant The slump test is considered positive if the patient’s symptoms carried out a form of aerobic exercise (e. Reproduced with permission from Cleland et al (2005) endurance and coordination, and trunk and hundred patients were enrolled in a limb strengthening exercises. In outcomes were pain intensity, pain the standard group, treatment consisted of bothersomeness and function, measured at 6 immobilization with a soft collar over 7 days. High levels of baseline In the physical therapy group, patients were pain intensity were associated with greater scheduled for 10 physical therapy treatment effects at 6 weeks, and high levels of appointments including active exercises within baseline disability were associated with greater 14 days after enrolment. In the short were randomly assigned to the standard term, exercise and advice are slightly more treatment group and 103 to the physical effective than advice alone for people with therapy group. After 6 weeks, mean pain persisting pain and disability following intensity was signiﬁcantly (p = 0. Similarly, after 6 months, signiﬁcantly (p authors note that: ‘The small, short-term effect <0. The to be effective for this treatment-resistant conclusion was that a physical therapy protocol patient group. Two upslip, downslip, posterior or anterior ﬁxed 488 Naturopathic Physical Medicine Figure 10. Reproduced with permission from Horton & Franz (2007) A innominate) and may be treated by case study (20 m shuttle run, 20 m and 5 m manipulation or mobilization (including sprint tests) are frequently employed in muscle energy techniques) (Walker 1992). All Alternatively, Lee (2004) has proposed a players were commenced on a conservative complex classiﬁcation system based on an rehabilitation program involving abdominal integrated model of function. Treatment and pelvic strengthening exercises in a techniques proposed to correct ‘biomechanical graduated format and successfully achieved dysfunctions’ include belt ﬁxation, mobilization this outcome between 10 and 16 weeks after and manipulation procedures. Rehabilitation included completion massage are also purported to correct muscle of a running program consisting of durations imbalance together with a corrective exercise and elements speciﬁc to football. During their program to restore joint position, including the rehabilitation a consistent pattern of clinical hip joint. If manual techniques fail to resolve milestones emerged that coincided with the the pain, then prolotherapy injection therapy players’ readiness to return to football. The clinical outcome measures with chronic groin pain from osteitis pubis included strong effort pain-free hip adduction, and/or adductor tendinopathy. Twenty-two with no tenderness over the pubic symphysis, rugby and two soccer players with chronic bone or adductor complex. The functional groin pain that prevented full sports outcome measure involved a pain-free participation and who were non-responsive completion of a running program based on both to therapy and to a graded reintroduction average distances covered by players in a into sports activity received monthly injections game.
Darmstadt 100mcg advair diskus amex asthma definition in kannada, 1995 cheap advair diskus 100 mcg otc asthma symptoms hoarseness, S 99–112; Liske E: 50 Plant Summaries—B Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for Gynecologic 1 Disorders. Hence, the herb softens the stools and increases the 15 volume of the bowel contents. Pregnant or nursing mothers 19 should not use buckthorn fruit unless directed by a physician. Alternatively, place the herb in cold water, boil for 2 24 to 3 minutes, then strain immediately. Long-term use can result in the loss of electrolytes, par- 31 ticularly potassium ions, thereby leading to problems such as hyper- 32 aldosteronism and decreased bowel motility. Arrhythmias, nephropathies, 33 edemas, and accelerated bone degeneration are rare side effects. Consumption 34 of large quantities of buckthorn fruit can lead to diarrhea with vomiting and 35 kidney irritation. Deutsche Apotheker Ztg 136 (1996), 2353–2354; Anon: Anwen- 48 dungseinschränkungen für Anthranoid-haltige Abführmittel angeordnet. The herb consists of the dried, 6 coarsely chopped (and usually peeled) rhizome of Acorus calamus (L. In animal studies, the herb 13 demonstrated spasmolytic and sedative effects, reduced spontaneous 14 stomach activity, and lowered the ulcer index (reduced the production of 15 gastric juices and acids). Calamus also has stomachic action due to the pres- 16 ence of bitter principles and the spasmolytic effect of its essential oil. In Germany, no official risk-to- 40 benefit assessment of calamus root has yet been published in any monograph. Natural R(+) 7 camphor is obtained by steam distilling the wood of the camphor tree, 8 the product of which is then purified by sublimation. The herb consists of the essential oil 49 distilled from the ripe seedlike fruit of Carum carvi L. Caraway seeds should be crushed immediately prior to use to prevent 41 unnecessary loss of the highly volatile essential oil. Its hot and 49 spicy fruit is best known as a spice, but is also used in medicine. The herb consists of the ripe, dried 3 fruit (without calyx) of Capsicum annuum L. Topical application of the herb initially induces erythema accom- 8 panied by sensations of pain and heat, followed by a phase of insensitivity 9 (reversible or irreversible deactivation of afferent fibers). The antinocicep- 10 tor and antiphlogistic effects of the herb can persist for several hours to sev- 11 eral weeks. Deutsche Apo- 36 theker Ztg 137 (1997), 1027–1028; Anon: Phytotherapie: Pflanzliche 37 Antirheumatika—was bringen sie? Deutsche Apotheker Ztg 136 (1996), 38 4012–4015; Kreymeier J: Rheumatherapie mit Phytopharmaka. When collecting cham- 45 omile, it is important to remember that the receptacle of true (German) cham- 46 omile is hollow and conical. Only distil- 32 lates and alcohol preparations of the herb contain therapeutically effective 33 concentrations of the essential oil. Deutsche Apotheker Ztg 136 (1996), 1821–1834; Mil- 39 ler T, Wittstock U, Lindequist U, Teuscher E: Effects of some components of 40 the essential oil of chamomile, Chamomilla recutita, on Histamine release 41 from mast cells. It suppresses the release of prolactin and reduces the 5 symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. In animals, the extract was found to 6 inhibit lactation, normalize stress-induced hyperprolactinemia, and exert 7 dopaminergic effects. Z Phytother 17 (1996), 237–243; Winterhoff H: Arzneipflanzen 30 mit endokriner Wirksamkeit. The herb consists of the hand-picked and 35 dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (L. The 6 medicinal uses for the herb are a consequence of the therapeutic action of clove 7 oil. Roasted 29 coffee beans contain many aroma substances due to the pyrolysis of carbo- 30 hydrates, proteins, fats, and aromatic acids. Most of the effects specified for coffee 33 are attributable to the action of caffeine. It relaxes the smooth 37 muscles of the blood vessels (except in the brain, where it causes vaso- 38 constriction) and bronchi. Caffeine has short-term diuretic effects, stim- 39 ulates the secretion of gastric juices, and increases the release of 40 catecholamines. Pa- 8 tients with cardiovascular lability, kidney diseases, hyperthyroidism, a predis- 9 position to convulsions, and certain psychiatric disorders (e. The maximum safe daily dose should not 15 exceed 300 mg (equivalent to 3 cups of coffee). These effects can even occur with chronic use of as 22 little as 300–500 mg/day in sensitive individuals. Food 36 Chem Toxicol, 33 (1995), 195–201; Anon: Kaffee erhöht den Cholesterin- 37 spiegel. Deutsche Apotheker Ztg 133 (1993), 441; Bättig K: Kaffee in 39 wissenschaftlicher Sicht. Z Phytother 9 (1988), 95; Butz S: Nurses-Health- 40 Studie: Kaffee – kein Risikofaktor für koronare Herzkrankheit? Deutsche 41 Apotheker Ztg 136 (1996), 1680–1682; Garattini S: Caffeine, Coffee and 42 Health. The herb consists of dried 6 bark from the trunk and branches of Marsdenia condurango R. In animals, dandelion root 12 was found to have a saluretic effect attributable to its high concentrations 13 of minerals. Patients with gallbladder problems should not use dan- 20 delion unless instructed by a qualified health care provider owing to the risk 21 of colic. The herb consists of the secondary 45 storage roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (B. Phenylethanol 49 50 Plant Summaries—D 1 derivatives such as acteoside, verbascoside, and isoacteoside are also 2 present. In animals, it has anti- 5 inflammatory, analgesic, and antiarthritic effects, and harpagoside was 6 found to inhibit the biosynthesis of certain prostaglandins that cause 7 inflammation. Devil’s claw is an effective herbal remedy 23 that is especially well suited for adjuvant treatment of rheumatic diseases. An analytical study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of 33 Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri. In mice, the proliferation of splenic cells in- 17 creased greatly, and the production of cytokines and antibodies increased. Parenteral admin- 23 istration of echinacea as used in Europe is contraindicated during pregnancy and 24 in general discouraged.
Following this discount advair diskus 100mcg mastercard asthma symptoms 9 months, the historical linguist or pragmatist is confronted with the question of how the written data available nowadays actually reflects the language spoken in that given historical period purchase advair diskus with mastercard asthmatic bronchitis natural cure, in order to understand the “conventions of language use in communities that once existed and are no longer accessible for direct observation” (Archer 2005: 6). However, the same author reports that, already in 1554, a judge declared, The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 239 If matters arise in our law which concern other sciences or faculties we com- monly apply for the aid of that science or faculty, which it concerns. For thereby it appears that we don’t despise all other sciences but our own, but we approve of them and encourage them, as things worthy of recommendation. Historically, experts could in fact participate as specialist jurors whose particular knowledge was gained from their personal experience and th th training. In the late 13 and 14 centuries, such specialist juries were generally composed of goldsmiths, aldermen, cooks, fishmongers and masters of grammar who used their specialized knowledge to render their verdict (Chaemsaithong 2011). Towards the early modern period, there began a constant and continual decline in the use of a knowledgeable and informed jury that was entrusted with a “fact- finding, investigatory role” (Stygall 2001: 331). It was gradually replaced with a silent and uninformed jury whose responsibility was merely to consider evidence and testimony from the other witnesses in a trial. Thus, expert witnesses became necessary to give specialised testimony and evidence that would better inform the jury about the case before pronouncing their verdict (Chaemsaithong 2011). Since they had personally observed the facts and testified as to their conclusions, they could express their opinions; yet these were not differentiated from those of lay jurors who could do exactly the same, basing themselves on their direct knowledge of the facts of the case (Golan 2003). Furthermore, what must be borne in mind is that the growth of expert knowledge in fields such as medicine and its recognition as such is a relatively recent phenomenon, dating back to about the end th of the 19 century. This was of course the result of the growing reliance on science and the simultaneous rise of university and mass education systems that helped to legitimize the privileged status of 240 Michela Giordano experts, resulting from their professional expertise, capability and competence (Chaemsaithong 2011). However, as still happens in the modern adversarial court, expert witnesses in the historical courtroom needed to construct and negotiate their identity, especially during the cross-examination when they were obliged “to counterbalance sceptical attitudes and hostile attempts aimed to undermine their testimony that accompanied their vulnerable status and image” (Chaemsaithong 2011: 472). An analysis of their discursive practices could also help shed light on the means they adopted to gain control during the interaction and (re)negotiate and (re)affirm their identity and professionalism. Analysis and discussion The defendants in the fourteen trials under investigation were all un- married women, aged 18-29 who worked as tailoresses, laundresses or domestic servants who were all accused of infanticide generally following an illegitimate pregnancy. Most of them were judged guilty and condemned to imprisonment or hard labour; some received the death penalty, and some were considered unfit to plead because of their (presumed) insanity. As can be seen from Table 3, the medical experts were generally medical superintendents, or assistant medical officers, registered medical practitioners, divisional surgeons of the police, or pathologists. Despite their titles and qualifications, as stated above, medical experts in the historical courtroom had to negotiate their professional identity and their expertise. Experts were not always allowed to expand on their answers or provide further explanations of medical evidence for the benefit of the jurors and the judge. The medical narratives in direct examinations are generally longer than in the other examinations and this can be explained by its less challenging and taxing nature. Medical jargon embedded in the legal context From a thorough reading of the transcripts, the use of two particular phrases comes immediately to the reader’s attention: separate exis- tence, referred to the newly-born baby and puerperal fever, referred to the mother. As will be explained later through the selected excerpts, the experts in the trials in the corpus appear to have had the opportunity to provide clarifications and details about the meaning of the two expressions and this can be explained by what Chaemsaithong (2011) states about expansions of response. In their answers to the lawyers’ questions, they were able to provide detailed information and to expand their replies, often adding explanations of the most difficult medical terminology or of the expressions which needed to be clarified for the lay jury and the public present in the courtroom or even for the legal professionals who had no knowledge of or even familiarity with certain scientific and medical facts. Additionally, Chaemsaithong (2011: 480) notes that, differently from lay witnesses, experts in historical courtrooms were there to convey their opinion about a particular issue based on their qualifications and thus The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 243 attempted to shield themselves from blame and criticism. The expansion of responses had several communicative goals for medical experts: a) to establish their identity as experts; b) to negotiate positive self-representation and prevent their already vulnerable status from being attacked; c) to propagate and reproduce the scientific ideology. The need to elucidate on scientific principles and disseminate medical perspectives was often in contrast with the discredit and distrust that experts were sometimes subjected to. Nevertheless, as highlighted by Anesa (2012: 164), “the expert witness plays a crucial function in framing specialized (scientific) knowledge and often assumes the role of an expert mediator of knowledge”. The author refers to experts in the contemporary courtroom context, but we can safely affirm that what she says was true of the historical courtroom, where witnessing through medical and scientific evidence was also a way to make medicine and science more comprehensible and accessible to lay people. In order to try defendants in an infanticide case and judge whether they objectively committed the crime of killing their newly- born baby, the baby’s life had to be demonstrated before presupposing it was actually murdered rather than stillborn. Atkinson wrote in 1904, A child is not born alive in law, and consequently cannot claim the right of a subject of the King, until it has exhibited a separate and independent existence after complete extrusion from the body of its mother. This expulsion does not also imply the delivery of the paraphernalia of the fœtus, nor need these be disconnected, for the legal consummation of birth (539-544). Charles Graham Grant made the post-mortem examination of the newborn child and explained why, in his opinion, the fatal blow to the victim was given during its legal life: 244 Michela Giordano (1) in my opinion that bruise was inflicted during legal life according to the defi- nition given in our medical text books […] we are taught to gauge the circulation by our experience by the quantity of hemorrhage and the severity of the injury − if the prisoner were able to give the child a blow on the head directly it presented itself the results might be the same, but I cannot say positively − my opinion is that the blow was given during legal life − the hemorrhage extended over a considerable part of the surface of the brain − […] but I am going largely by the books. One of the ways in which they provided evidence that the baby was actually born before being killed is through the examination of the lungs, which were inflated to demonstrate that the baby breathed fully and deeply before receiving the lethal injuries. Then, when cross-examined, he provided expansion and further explanation of how the hydrostatic test worked, as in excerpt (2): (2) A child does not breathe so fully when only half born as it does when the birth is complete; the amount of air in the lungs varies […] – the hydrostatic test is, in my opinion, absolutely conclusive in circumstances of this kind; each lobe is separately tested to see if it floats; then each is cut into pieces, and these pieces are tested, and so you get a complete test of the lungs […] the inflation of the lungs, to my mind, proved conclusively that the child had had a separate existence, and breathed fully and deeply. Leonard Harman distinguishes between the biological (and medical) and the legal sense of the phrase born alive: (3) I told the Magistrate that I formed the opinion that the child was probably born alive − I fully appreciate the difference of the sense of the biological and The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 245 legal phrases of being born alive − in a medical sense ‘born alive’ means the child has breathed, but in the legal sense it means it has breathed after it was wholly separated from the body of the mother […]. Blomfield of the Camberwell Infirmary exposed his findings resulting from the examination of the baby’s body and stated: (4) I do not think the wounds could have been inflicted before complete birth. By ‘separate existence’ I mean that the child breathed; […] that it has born and has breathed; by ‘born’ I mean that it is away from the mother; the attachment or non-attachment of the cord makes no difference. Blomfield in excerpt (5) above: 246 Michela Giordano (6) By a ‘separate existence’ I understand that the child was carrying out its life entirely apart from any circulation of its mother. Saying that the prisoner had recently been delivered of a child, thus using a passive construction rather than the active one had recently delivered a child, might hint to the fact that in the past pregnancy and childbirth were life-threatening ordeals and many women did not get through them alive. The idea that pregnancy was a burden, a menace and a risk is also confirmed by the frequent use in the corpus of the word confinement and the clause she had been recently confined. Confinement meant keeping a new mother and her baby at home for a certain number of days or weeks after delivery, in order to protect both from infection and help the mother to recover. This is a traditional practice which is still used in some Western and Eastern countries, where women observe some forty days of recuperation in their post-partum period. Puerperal fever was one of the symptoms women endured during the period of confinement, as in excerpt (8): The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 247 (8) a woman having her first child may, in a way, be affected mentally; there would be pain during the birth, which would be accentuated by depression − child birth is very often followed by a period of partial or total unconsciousness – a woman might not know what was going on around her, or what she was doing herself – I do not think that child birth is a surprising branch of medical science. Harry Brown explained that this temporary insanity affected women especially during their first pregnancy or first confi- nement, particularly if they had given birth to the child unassisted. Generally, doctors in the corpus affirmed that it was quite likely that a woman having her first child might have her mental equilibrium upset and that for a brief period she might not realize what she was doing. They often maintained that, at the time the accused killed the newborn baby, the woman was undoubtedly not responsible for her actions because she was in a state of frenzy, caused by the ‘pain acting on her nerves’, as explained in excerpt (10): (10) I do not think that the concealment of the body of a child recently born would be the act of a person suffering from transitory mania – it generally comes on after the last pain and before the child is born − it is the pain acting on the nerves of a woman […] puerperal mania comes on afterwards. Then, after hesitating and hedging, he promptly corrected himself and stated that loss of memory and other symptoms could be especially present in first labours, but they were not caused or linked in any way to illegitimate pregnancy: (12) where women have never had a child before there is a possibility in cases of this nature, and especially in illegitimate pregnancy, that an occurrence of transitory mania may be followed by loss of memory of events at this period − loss of memory may follow any confinement − I would not say as to illegitimate pregnancy − I should say especially to first labours, whether they were illegitimate or not. Charles Ewart explained that the state of mental excitement is typical of married women and thus even more likely to occur in young unmarried women who find themselves in great agony because of their unwanted pregnancy, as shown in excerpt (13): (13) I have had a great deal of experience in child delivery. The Old-Bailey Proceedings: Medical Discourse in Criminal Cases 249 Along with the expressions already analysed such as separate existence, independent existence, confinement, be delivered of a child, puerperal fever or transitory mania and born alive, other expressions were found which refer to the defendants’ state of health right after delivering (such as loss of memory), or to the abovementioned hydrostatic test performed through the inflation of the lungs on the bodies of the dead babies to ascertain their separate existence after birth. Other expressions belonging to medical professional discourse and typically recurrent in infanticide cases seem to be complete birth to mean the complete separation from the mother’s body and precipitated birth or precipitative birth (corresponding to the modern ‘precipitate delivery’) to refer to a delivery which follows an unusually rapid labour and results in a sudden and spontaneous expulsion of the infant, causing health problems to both the baby (such as brain haemorrhage) and the mother (such as lacerations and infections). Thomas John Price Jenkins explains that the defendant might have become delirious because of the pain of a rapid and intense labour and considers the matter of precipitative delivery, which might cause the newborn’s brain to haemorrhage: (14) I was told on one occasion of her being inclined to be violent ‒ such pain as she had had might make her temporarily insane and unconscious ‒ I do not say irresponsible, but unconscious ‒ it is quite possible that she became delirious through pain, because she was melancholic ‒ I do not think the pain would make her unconscious, but it might make her delirious ‒ severe haemorrhage would produce unconsciousness ‒ if in a case of precipitative birth a child had its head fractured on a hard surface, death would be produced by it, and in those cases there would be signs of haemorrhage in the brain ‒ they do not die immediately from the fracture of the skull.
Mazziotta ea buy discount advair diskus 100mcg line asthma knowledge test,(1987) in a controlled study of Huntington’s disease discount advair diskus uk asthma definition 94107, reported a marked decrease in glucose metabolism in the caudate nuclei of both symptomatic and asymptomatic at-risk subjects. Multi-infarct dementia is characterised by patchy reductions in cerebral blood flow and metabolism,(Kumar, 1993) and fairly distinctive patterns are found in Pick’s disease and Parkinson’s disease with dementia. Major depression in the elderly is associated with reductions in whole brain glucose metabolic rates comparable in magnitude to those found in Alzheimer’s disease. The latter fact makes it difficult to do multiple pictures at one sitting because one has to subtract residual radioactivity from any previous scan; also, high radiation exposure limits one to 2-3 scans/person/year. However, the region of interest methodology has given way to various voxel-based techniques (e. Up to 80% of Alzheimer patients show reduced blood flow (and glucose metabolism) in the cortex of posterior temperoparietal regions; there is relative sparing of primary sensory areas and subcortical regions. During tasks that activate the frontal lobes, patients with schizophrenia, unlike controls, fail to increase blood flow to the frontal cortex. It is useful for delineating problems in the posterior fossa, the cranio-cervical junction, and the neural canal. T1 relaxation time rose immediately after the fit, reaching a maximum 4-6 hours later, T1 values then returning to baseline. Interestingly, in a very small study of patients with cerebral trauma,(Buckley ea, 1993) those with an illness resembling schizophrenia, but not those with a schizoaffective-like disorder, had left temporal lobe abnormalities. In the Rangel-Guerra ea (1983) study of bipolar affective disorder patients, the latter had longer brain proton T1 relaxation times that normalised after lithium treatment, whereas lithium had no effect on this perameter in normal control subjects. Knauth ea (1997) demonstrated multiple brain lesions in sport divers in association with a large patent 385 foramen ovale that might be explained by paradoxical arterial gas embolism. It provides information on the directional orientation of white matter tracts and informs us of their structural integrity. By controlling the position of light source and detector and by extremely fast recording (in milliseconds) one can get an idea of signal source and temporal change. Because of poor penetration of light, activation of deep brain structures are not detected. It uses the brain’s natural haemodynamic response to neural activity as an endogenous tracer. The subject must tolerate scanner noise and close confinement 387 Thanks to the pioneering work of Charles Dumoulin during the 1980s. Oxygenated haemoglobin is slightly diamagnetic and causes weak disturbances in the local magnetic field. On the other hand, deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagmetic, aligns with an applied magnetic field, and increases the strength of the local magnetic field. Natural emissions from atomic nuclei activated by magnetic fields are used to measure concentrations of molecules within the body. There are no ‘pictures’, just quantitative measurements, a display of the spectrum of certain chemicals. This very small field can be measured at the scalp (a magnetically shielded room and very low temperatures for the loop are required). The ability to detect deep brain discharges using this method may obviate the need for indwelling electrodes. In one study,(Reite ea, 1997) controls demonstrated asymmetry in an auditory-evoked field component (100-msec. Resolution and spatial accuracy declines as the further one moves from the cortex. Application of a radiofrequency pulse tuned to the frequency of the specific element yields a spectrum that is caused by the different compounds containing the specific element. Prenatal ultrasonography at 19-23 weeks gestation found a non-significant trend towards increased lateral ventricular width in offspring of mothers with psychosis. Cognitive subtraction paradigm An image of neural activity (be it blood flow or electrical activity) is taken before (control state) and during (task state) a task and the difference (subtraction) shows what brain parts are used for that task. In practice averages across intra- and interindividual repeated task performance are used in order to control for ‘noise’. Sleep disorders Sleep disorders in children, although distressing at the time, are mostly developmental: they grow out of them. Clues to the need for further investigation are very frequent occurrence, onset in or persistence into late childhood, appearance after a traumatic event, and other evidence of psychological disturbance. Chronic insomnia affects 10-15% of the population, and is more common in women and in older people. Alcohol taken in excess can itself cause insomnia and sleep disturbance may persist for weeks after cessation of heavy alcohol intake. Stimulating drugs, such as tranylcypromine, should not be taken later than 395 noon. Ultra-short acting agents may produce daytime anxiety but are less likely than longer acting agents to produce daytime drowsiness. Ramelteon reduces sleep latency with no significant rebound insomnia or abstinence syndrome. Fear of bedtime and catastrophising about sleep loss (negative automatic thoughts) need to be confronted. The patient should confine time in bed to time spent asleep so as to increase sleep efficiency ([time asleep/time in bed]% = sleep efficiency). Lack of sleep in young doctors may be associated with a significant slowing in cognitive processing, a decline in reaction times, and deleterious changes in mood. Sleep advance involves bringing the sleep-wake cycle forward by about 5 hours; again, improvement in depressed mood may not be maintained for any useful length of time,(Sovetre, ea, 1987) although there is some evidence of augmentation of this effect by lithium. Improved mood after one night’s sleep deprivation favours depressive pseudodementia 397 over organic dementia ; the latter is likely to worsen under these circumstances. This irregular sleep-wake rhythm is managed by engaging the patient in captivating diurnal activities, morning light exposure, and retiring at the same time each day. However, when used with lithium or antidepressant drugs, such deprivation may produce more sustained effects. In fact, the typical insomniac is the thin, old, ‘neurotic’ woman who smokes a lot. Many factors may aggravate sleep problems in the elderly, such as pain, bladder or bowel problems, anxiety, depression, and dementia. Geriatric in-patients suffer from the high levels of background noise to be found in our 400 hospitals. The latter are useful as short-term sedatives but basically ineffective as anxiolytics. Alcohol is an often ineffective hypnotic because of dehydration, micturition and early morning rebound. Non-pharmacological measures such as sleep hygiene (Sateia & Nowell, 2004) or hot milk drinks should be tried before drugs.